Decision 94/800/EC on the conclusion, on behalf of the EU, of the agreements reached in the uruguay round multilateral negotiations (1986-1994) has been adopted by many nations in bilateral agreements aimed at adopting a higher level of protection. This collection of standards, known as TRIPS or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms.  Among the general objectives of these agreements are: at the WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha in 2001, the least developed countries still have 10 years to implement the TRIPS patent provisions and the „undisclosed information” provisions for medicines. In July 2002, the WTO General Council agreed to waive the obligations of least developed countries for exclusive drug marketing rights by 1 January 2016. This pressure, which can be bilateral (for example. B under U.S. Trade Representative Special Procedure 301) or multilateral (smaller competing trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), has multiplied in recent years due to an effective failure of the WTO negotiations, which halted further progress in their last round of negotiations, the Doha Development Round. What are intellectual property rights? Intellectual property rights are the rights given to men by creating their minds. The 2002 Doha Declaration confirmed that the TRIPS agreement should not prevent members from taking the necessary steps to protect public health.
Despite this recognition, less developed countries have argued that flexible TRIPS provisions, such as mandatory licensing, are almost impossible to obtain. The least developed countries, in particular, have made their young domestic manufacturing and technological industries proof of the infallible policy. Daniele Archibugi and Andrea Filippetti argue that the importance of TRIPS in the process of developing and disseminating knowledge and innovation has been overestimated by its supporters. This was supported by the FINDINGs of the United Nations that many low-protection countries regularly benefit from significant foreign direct investment (FDI).  Analysis of OECD countries in the 1980s and 1990s (which extended the lifespan of drug patents by 6 years) showed that, although the total number of registered products increased slightly, the average innovation index remained unchanged.  On the other hand, J-rg Baten, Nicola Bianchi and Petra Moser (2017) find historical evidence that compulsory licensing – a key mechanism for weakening IP rights under Article 31 of TRIPS – can effectively lead to the promotion of inventions by increasing the threat to competition in areas of low competition.